This paper studies the relationship between university institutional autonomy (both formal and informal) and their performance and efficiency using multi-stage empirical methodology. First, we measure an “autonomy-in-use” index, and then we employ Data Envelopment Analysis in order to evaluate institutional efficiency. Lastly, we use a panel fixed effect regression to provide robust evidence for the relationship between institutional autonomy, performance and efficiency. We find that formal status of autonomy does not predict higher publication activity or efficiency. However, the findings also reveal that informal autonomy is positively associated with efficiency scores, and advanced practices in staff management can contribute to increases in publication activity and overall institutional efficiency.
Grit is widely considered a trait composed of perseverance of effort (PE) and consistency of long-term interests (CI) that is positively associated with educational and professional attainments. However, because of unclear relations between the two elements that compose grit, PE and CI, the theoretical model of the construct of grit is still questionable. On the one hand, we have extensive evidence that the overall score for grit can predict important life outcomes. On the other hand, predictive ability does not necessarily indicate that a measure reflects a unitary psychological trait. In the case of the Grit scale, a number of works have shown that treating grit as a whole or higher-order construct is psychometrically and psychologically unsound. In this work, we aimed to explore the relationship of PE and CI with long-term educational outcomes in desired educational trajectories while controlling for potentially confounding factors. We hypothesized that if PE and CI are facets of a unified grit construct, we would find consistent patterns in these facets for a range of educational outcomes. Our study was conducted on a large sample of students (N=3110) from a national longitudinal study of school and university graduates. These students were also participants in both the TIMSS-2011 and PISA-2012 studies. When the students were in 9th grade, we assessed their grit, academic achievement, and educational aspiration. The next year, we obtained information about the choices students made after completing compulsory education: staying in high school vs. obtaining vocational training. Two years later, we again assessed the students’ educational and life outcomes. We run two regression models. The first model was a model with PE and CI as predictors only. In the second model, SES, gender, cognitive ability scores and educational aspirations were added as covariates. To test the mediation hypotheses, we also run regression models for possible mediators (educational aspirations and achievement) as outcomes. The results showed that perseverance was a better predictor than interests, although the effects of perseverance on long-term educational outcomes were more often indirect. Consistency of interests did not predict educational trajectories or achievement. Accordingly, we failed to find any consistent patterns in perseverance and interests with long-term educational outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the nature of the grit construct and the validity of the Grit scale.
This paper analyses the link between the efficiency of regional higher education systems and the rates of regional economic development between 2012 and 2015 in Russia. The efficiency scores are calculated at the institutional level using Two-stage Semi-parametric data envelopment analysis. Then, the scores are aggregated at the regional level. We formulate an economic growth model that considers the efficiency of regional higher education systems as one of the explanatory variables. As an econometric method, we employ a robust GMM estimator. The findings highlight a positive, and statistically significant effect of higher education institutions efficiency on the regional economic growth. We also found negative spillover effects.
This research explores the interrelations of higher education and welfare state models in the USSR of the 1960-1980s and Russia of the 2000-2020s. We first address the extent to which the provision of higher education aligns with the key imperatives of welfare redistribution: eligibility, state-market balance, and equality. Second, we schematize the values – instrumental, positional, intrinsic – of higher education that influenced well-being in the Soviet Union and Russia. We argue that the provision of higher education in these two state regimes complies with the political economy of two welfare models, suggesting a continuity across socialist and corporatist traditions. In the USSR, higher education was a part of a hybrid comprehensive-corporatist welfare model. Formally a universal right, it can be conceptualized as a state asset and a privilege attached to the class, entailing high intrinsic value. Higher education provision in Russia aligns with the conservative pattern while preserving traits of the socialist past and liberal transition. State commitment in the provision of public higher education and moderate marketization frame the hybrid nature of higher education as a social right and commodity with high instrumental and positional values.
The consequences of demographic revolutions influence the number of potential university applicants and higher education accessibility in Russia. An analysis of current demographic trends, at a time when the number of universities is shrinking, shows a threat of decreasing access to higher education, coupled with high regional differentiation in the availability of education, likely to worsen as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and current economic crisis.
We provide a framework for integrating sociological and political-historical approaches to the worldwide expansion of higher education in the twentieth century. Doing so enables scholars and policymakers to better identify variation across place and time in how the provision of higher education has been rendered culturally meaningful and politically feasible. We identify three conceptions of state commitment to higher education: as a national asset, a citizen right, and a commodity. The conceptions are not mutually exclusive and can simultaneously animate national cultures and politics. We also suggest a novel periodization of global higher education history from 1945 to the present. Our work serves as an introduction to the seven other articles in this special issue, which consider the twentieth-century evolution of higher education politics and policies in Canada, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and USSR/Russia.
The paper examines the influence of non-cognitive skills of employees on the voluntary turnover during their first year at an organization. In contrast to the variables describing job satisfaction and commitment to the organization, the use of personal traits as determinants behind the decision to change companies is poorly studied in the literature. The article aims to identify indicators pointing to the tendency of an employee to voluntarily change the company. The theoretical basis of the study embraces James Heckman’s concept of non-cognitive skills and the conceptual provisions of personality psychology. In the paper, the method of economic modelling was used. The information base includes the results of the empirical assessment of 243 applicants for employment in JSC “Sheremetyevo International Airport” in 2019 and data on their dismissal during the first year of work. The database was supplemented with information on the company’s internal accounting and Rosstat statistics. The use of the probit model of binary choice allowed us to establish that, along with the relative salary and the specificity of employees’ expertise, their intention to quit is affected by non-cognitive skills such as capability to assess their own performance, the locus of control and the type of thinking. A rational way to deal with crises and a high level of self-perception of the effectiveness and significance of work reduce the probability of voluntary turnover before the first year. In addition, a high position and good salary strengthen an employee’s intention to stay in the company. Based on the research results, the paper offers recommendations to HR managers to retain highly qualified employees.
The article presents a systematic review of theoretical and methodological approaches to the conceptualization and empirical study of doctoral students’ supervision. Three approaches (mentoring, doctoral student-centered, and en- vironmental) are distinguished depending on the main responsibility for the result. The mentoring approach attributes the responsibility for the result to the supervisor. This approach is generally associated with the so-called «apprentice model», which understands the doctoral student as a «neophyte» introduced to the academic world by the supervisor. The doctoral student-centered approach is characterized by imposing the responsibility mainly on the doctoral student. The article presents a systematic review of theoretical and methodological approaches to the conceptualization and empirical study of doctoral students’ supervision. Three approaches (mentoring, doctoral student-centered, and environmental) are distinguished depending on the main responsibility for the result. The mentoring approach attributes the responsibility for the result to the supervisor. This approach is generally associated with the so-called «apprentice model», which understands the doctoral student as a «neophyte» introduced to the academic world by the supervisor. The doctoral student-centered approach is characterized by imposing the responsibility mainly on the doctoral student.
As an inevitable result of Russia’s higher education policies of the past two decades, new university leaders in and outside of Moscow and St. Petersburg have emerged, and vertical differentiation has increased. Inequality of educational potential has a strong regional dimension, exerting a considerable delayed impact on regional socioeconomic development. Differences in universities’ resources affected their ability to adapt their instructional, research, and administrative processes to change during the pandemic, thus broadening the education and research quality gap in higher education. Some regions may face an increased outflow of youth talent to leading universities or just any colleges based in Moscow and St. Petersburg, which will certainly weaken the socioeconomic growth prospects of Russia’s regions. The pandemic accelerated the debate over this problem and demonstrated readiness of universities for joint efforts. Groundwork was laid for deploying a policy to create a cooperative network of universities and their stakeholders so as to reduce institutional differentiation and promote exchange of experience and competence among universities. This paper investigates into the main characteristics of vertical differentiation in Russian higher education that had been in place when the pandemic broke out and determined whether universities succeeded or failed in switching to distance learning. Furthermore, lockdown measures and their economic impact on different types of universities are analyzed. Finally, we discuss possible avenues and specific considerations for expanding cross-institutional collaboration and engaging stakeholders in university development
This article is devoted to the phenomenon of fan fiction in its interaction with Russian classical literature. Traditionally, fan fiction is associated with products of mass culture – fantasy novels, TV-series, anime or comic books. The transformation of canonical literary texts by their creative fans is hardly a widespread practice. In Russia and the Russian-speaking world, where “great Russian literature” has sacred status and the classics are obligatory reading at secondary school, fan fiction based on classical texts is an especially exotic and shocking phenomenon. In this work I list the key characteristics of Russian-classics fan fiction, outline fan fiction writers’ most popular Russian classical texts – Eugene Onegin, War and Peace, Crime and Punishment, and Woe from Wit – and describe recurring narratives of fanfics: “crossovers”, “slash” stories, and alternative endings. I also reveal a unique subgenre of fan fiction specific to Russian classical literature, which puts the original work’s author and his characters together into the same literary space. Further, I problematize the reverence given to literary classics in the Russian-speaking world, the secondary school experience, and their influence on the creative processes of fan fiction. From a series of in-depth interviews with fan fiction writers, I identify the emotional modes of “guilt”, “responsibility” and “challenge” that are typical of the Russian-classics fan fiction experience.
The global order, based on international governance and multilateral trade mechanisms in the aftermath of the Second World War, is changing rapidly and creating waves of uncertainty. This is especially true in higher education, a field increasingly built on international cooperation and the free movement of students, academics, knowledge, and ideas. Meanwhile, China has announced its plans for a "New Silk Road" (NSR) and is developing its higher education and research systems at speed. In this book an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars from Europe, China, the USA, Russia, and Australia investigate how academic mobility and cooperation is taking shape along the New Silk Road and what difference it will make, if any, in the global higher education landscape. Opening chapters present the global context for the NSR, the development of Chinese universities along international models, and the history and outcomes of EU-China cooperation. The flows and patterns in academic cooperation along the NSR as they shape and have been shaped by China's universities are then explored in more detail. The conditions for Sino-foreign cooperation are discussed next, with an analysis of regulatory frameworks for cooperation, recognition, data, and privacy. Comparative work follows on the cultural traditions and academic values, similarities, and differences between Sinic and Anglo-American political and educational cultures, and their implications for the governance and mission of higher education, the role of critical scholarship, and the state and standing of the humanities in China. The book concludes with a focus on the "Idea of a University"; the values underpinning its mission, shape, and purpose, reflecting on the implications of China's rapid higher education development for the geo-politics of higher education itself.
Fertility, mortality and migration are constantly changing the population dynamics in Russia. Various historical events (economic crises, the collapse of the USSR, etc.) had a huge impact on the age and sex pyramid of the population. The consequences of the demographic crisis also influenced the number of potential university enrollments. An analysis of demographic trends in the Russian higher education (HE) system made it possible to identify several patterns.
It is well established that family socio-economic status (SES) is strongly related to academic performance. Nonetheless, there is a group of children with high levels of academic achievement who come from disadvantaged family backgrounds. These children possess what is called ‘academic resilience’. In our study, we want to see whether the two largest international comparative studies are consistent in terms of identifying resilient students and whether the factors of academic resilience are common for the two studies. We use data from a Russian longitudinal study Trajectories in Education and Careers (TrEC), in which students' achievement was measured with both the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS, 8th grade) and, a year later, the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Our study focuses on the relationship between individual and school-related factors of resilience and whether these factors are specific to a particular educational outcome (TIMSS or PISA), or are of a more universal nature. We show that attitudes towards mathematics and test scores in general are positively related to the probability of becoming a resilient student. We also find that school related variables (such as average school SES and school type) are more significant for TIMSS than for PISA results. Our study shows that there are students who are both TIMSS and PISA resilient.
Given the ambitious national strategies for science, innovations and university development in Russia, the availability
for young highly qualifi ed specialists who can be competitive at the global job market, is vital. At the same time,
as of now, Russia, unlike many other countries, does not have a comprehensive set of initiatives addressing the brain
drain among Russian students that obtain their degrees abroad.
This article provides an analysis of motivations of Russian perspective graduate (master and doctoral) students who plan
to study abroad and emigrate after graduation, as well as the factors that may positively aff ect their decision to return to
Russia. In addition, the research provides an overview of international policies and practices to prevent the brain drain,
and the opportunities for developing such policies in our country.
Sociologists have argued that high-stakes tests open the door to high levels of educational inequality at transition points: in a high-stakes testing regime, parents and students are able to focus all energy and resources on test preparation, thus enhancing pre-existing inequalities in academic performance. But arguments about a special role for high-stakes tests are often prosecuted without explicit comparisons to other types of tests and assessments, usually because information on other tests is not available. In this article, we analyze a unique dataset on a contemporary cohort of Russian students, for whom we have PISA and TIMSS scores, low-stakes test scores, and high-stakes test scores. We compare the role each test plays in mediating socioeconomic background inequalities at the important transitions in the Russian educational system: the transition to upper secondary education and the transition to university. We find evidence in favor of a special role for the high-stakes test at the transition to university, but we also find evidence that gives cause to question the standard assumption that high-stakes tests should be a primary focus for those concerned about inequality of educational opportunity.
The world has changed significantly because of the active development of scientific and technological advances over the past decade. A new emerging “economic reality” is characterized by the modernization of economic systems, globalization, computerization, informatization, humanization, ecologization, formation of a new model of socio-economic development of human society, etc. These changes require a new approach to the solution of various political, economic and social problems. The present-day economic reality provides a variety of forms and models of economic activity. Each country or region has its unique experience in solving the above-mentioned problems. Nowadays, the Russian economy is in recession. This inevitably has influenced the economic potential of the regions, which has led to worsening of the living standards of the population. In this regard, a review of the model of the regional socio-economic development and redesign of the regional economic policy is must. The formation of the new economy should include new ideas about the sources and factors of the economic development, including the potential of international cooperation, strengthening connection between science and education, knowledge transfer and investment in human capital. This book summarizes the results of the Russian studies in regional economics and aims to solve the following tasks: • to determine institutional peculiarities of the Russian model of the regional development; • to consider the mechanisms of innovative development of the Russian regions; • to analyze the main trends of the regional policy that provides the complex, balanced development of the region; • to analyze structural changes in regional economies in the context of global challenges. This book includes materials of the International Scientific Conference “Economics in the Changing World” held on June 26–27, 2018, at the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University (Kazan, Russia). This conference combines the contributions of leading specialists in the field of v management, territorial development and state, regional and municipal management. It also covers modern trends in the development of economic complexes and firms, economics of innovative processes, social policy, financial analysis, mathematical methods in economic research, etc. The presentations of the conference are grouped into three main categories, which form the basis of the parts of this book. The first part “Regional Economic Development” is devoted to the problems of transport development, agroindustrial complexes, investment policy and formation of methodological approaches to the effective work of small innovative enterprises of regional importance. The leading work “Institutions in the Context of the Regional Development of Russia” by scientists D. Vuković, N. Y. Vlasova and O. T. Ergunova is devoted to the role of the regional development institutions in the socio-economic regional development of the Russian Federation. The authors summarize the experience of managing the regional development institutions. They also conclude that it is necessary to increase the degree of influence on the development of the economic and social infrastructure of the regions of the Russian Federation. The work clarifies the nature and the content of the concept “regional institution of development,” as well as the main groups of the regional development institutions existing in Russia. The scientists develop trends toward increasing the efficiency of their functioning based on the survey. This survey is conducted for the heads of the development institutions the entities of the Russian Federation in terms of authority and degree of independence aimed to support investors and interact with them. The authors consider priorities in choosing current projects to develop the investment and social infrastructure, as well as the problems that hinder their efficient operation. The article “Infrastructure Projects and Transport Systems Financing in Russia” by L. R. Ikhsanova et al. is essential for this part. It is devoted to the problem of project financing of transport system development. Based on the analysis of Russian transport systems financing, the authors prove that during the economic development, the importance of budget financing is gradually decreasing. And nowadays, private and foreign investments and public-private partnership in financing of the infrastructure projects are becoming increasingly important. Using econometric tools, the authors evaluate the impact of the transport sector on the Russian GDP. Also, it is worth noting the work “The Influence of the Russian Economic Crisis on the Regional Peculiarities of Investment Activity” by M. N. Mironova, U. V. Mizerovskaya, E. V. Zhigalina and L. V. Shubtsova from the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The authors present a comprehensive analysis of the negative trends of investments in the economy of Russia and its regions, caused by the economic recession. The analysis of the investment structure shows a decline in the share of state property and an increase in the private property. This is associated with an increase in own funds and the growth of investments in mining operations and real estate. The authors compare the regional priorities of domestic and foreign investors and show the general level of investment activity in the regions and the prospects for the regional development of the Russian economy. vi Introduction The second part “Problems of Contemporary Regional Policy” is devoted to the government support for the regions, small enterprises and banks. The work “Food Stamps as a Method of the Parallel Government Support” by A. Nechaev, E. Ilina and M. Li is of particular interest. The scientists propose using food cards to support not only the population but also the regional agricultural commodity producers. It is proposed to limit the trade increment to 10% for essential products, which will allow developing the enterprises to find permanent market outlets. The low level of the trading margin will allow increasing the selling price for the manufacturer. This will contribute to the growth of the profitability of the main activity and indirectly stimulate the introduction of innovations. The authors believe that the proposed tool of support is promising in the context of the financial deficit since the funds allocated to the population stimulate agricultural production and increase the profitability of enterprises. The problem of investments and development of high-tech industries is one of the key subjects in this book. Thus, scientists O. I. Koloskova, I. V. Somina and M. Radosavljevic attempt to model the innovative activity of the Russian enterprises. They conclude that the most significant determinants of the innovation process in Russia are the market demand factor, investment-technological and business factors. The third part “Structural Changes in the Regional Economy” is devoted to the problems of particular sectors development in the regional economy. Efficiency assessment of the regional economy sectors is in the spotlight of I. A. Kabasheva, I. A. Rudaleva, A. V. Gorbatov and O. A. Krioshina in their work “The Effectiveness of the Regional Healthcare System: The Evidence from the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia).” The authors model the system of indicators for the assessment of the working efficiency of the health system in the Republic of Tatarstan. The authors assert that this model can be used for revising government programs and subprograms in health care. A number of works are dedicated to the development of the fuel and energy complex. E. A. Potapova, E. I. Bulatova, A. N. Kiryushkina and T. V. Polteva consider the development of the oil and gas industry through the prism of environmental safety. They note the existing paradoxical situation: The increase in the internal R&D expenses of the Russian oil and gas companies does not lead to the reduction in the pollutant emissions to the environment. Xiang Li, Aleksandr S. Bovkun, Galina M. Beregova, Aleksandr F. Schupletsov and Yullia A. Skorobogatova define approaches to building an effective system of project management in the field of renewable energy sources. They are convinced that the potential of renewable sources of energy in Russia is undervalued. But the use of modern management technologies will allow realizing power-efficient projects in this field. The work “Mathematical and Cartographic Modeling and Demographic Analysis of Rural Settlements” written by V. A. Rubtzov, N. K. Gabdrakhmanov, N. M. Biktimirov, M. R. Mustafin and R. R. Nurmieva (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) is also of relevance. The authors pay special attention to considering the issues of complex presentation of Introduction vii spatial and coordination information about the population. The modern methods and solutions used in the demographic analysis are discussed in this work. The scientists show that the geographic and cartographic components often become the main way of studying natural or socio-economic systems, including the population at the regional level. The efforts of the authors, reviewers, participants and organizers of the conference make it possible to discuss the issues devoted to the economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All the conference participants have made a great contribution to holding of the conference. The chairpersons of the program committee of the conference are N. G. Bagautdinova (Doctor of Economics, Professor, director of the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) and Yu. N. Moseikin (Doctor of Economics, Professor, head of the Department of National Economics of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia). The gratitude should also be expressed to the conference organizers from the higher educational institutions of Kazan Federal University and RUDN University.